This glossary is comprised of all terms and definitions used within the knowledge portal articles. Click on any letter to view an alphabetical listing. Or scroll down below to view terms in each alphabetical listing.




Refers to facilities built so that all pedestrians — people with disabilities and able-bodied alike — have access to and can use them. Also, describes a facility in the public ROW that complies with the (2011 PROWAG R105.5).


The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. ADA prohibits discrimination of people with disabilities and guarantees them the same opportunities as their able-bodied counterparts. It mandates unencumbered access to the built environment — including pedestrian facilities — for people with disabilities.

ADD (Area Development District):

Multi-county planning district that includes a regional transportation committee.   ADDs facilitate local input and priorities into statewide transportation planning.

Adhesion Test (coatings):

A term describing the minimum tensile strength of a coating either internally, to adjacent coatings in a coating system or to a metallic substrate (e.g., mill scale or abrasively blasted steel). This term is also used to describe knifing tests (e.g., cross-cut or cross-hatch tests) that provide an observable measure of coating stability in comparison to visual standard.  


A change to an existing pedestrian facility in the public ROW that affects or could affect pedestrian access, circulation, or use. Examples of alterations include resurfacing, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, and changes to or rearrangement of a facility’s structural parts or elements.


Accessible Pedestrian Signal(s). Used at signalized intersections to communicate information about WALK and DON’T WALK intervals in non-visual formats to pedestrians who have impaired vision (e.g., audible tones, vibrotactile surfaces). APSs are regularly integrated with the pedestrian pushbutton.

Area of Concern:

An object or roadside condition that may warrant a barrier to increase safety for vehicles departing the roadway.

Asset Management Projects:

The primary purpose of these projects is to address the condition of existing highway assets through replacement or repair.  They do not typically involve the addition of new capacity or roadway functionality, although minor improvements may sometimes be included. The most common asset management projects are those meant to address pavements or bridges that have deteriorated due to age and traffic impacts. They are included in the Existing Highway System Performance Projects Listing in the current Highway Plan.  Examples include pavement resurfacing, bridge replacements, and pavement and bridge preventative maintenance and rehabilitation projects.




A longitudinal device along the roadside used to shield vehicles from roadside obstacles or non-traversable terrain features. A roadside barrier is intended to contain or redirect an errant vehicle. It may occasionally be used to protect pedestrians or bystanders from vehicle traffic.

Base Studies:

A longitudinal device along the roadside used to shield vehicles from roadside obstacles or non-traversable terrain features. A roadside barrier is intended to contain or redirect an errant vehicle. It may occasionally

Best Management Practice (BMP):

BMPs are operating procedures that prevent or reduce the discharge of pollutants into WOTUS. BMPs may include policies for construction or maintenance activities specific to a project or standardized for a Cabinet of government (such as KYTC). A BMP Plan for a project site includes policies as well as site specific details.

Biennial Construction Plan: 

Specifies funding available through the Enacted Highway Plan for authorization during the upcoming two-year period.

Blast Cleaning: 

The use of high-velocity air and abrasive particles for surface cleaning.

Blended Transition:

Transitions to the street with a grade of less than 5 percent. Examples include raised pedestrian street crossings, depressed corners, and similar connections (2011 PROWAG R304.1).

Border Area:

In urban settings, the area between the face of curb and right-of-way line. It provides space in which to install roadside design components (e.g., signing, drainage features, sidewalks, and traffic control devices), establishes a buffer between vehicles and pedestrians, and may be used to accommodate permitted public utilities. It also provides space for constructing and maintaining the road.

Breakaway Support:

Sign, luminaire, and traffic signal supports that are designed to yield, fracture, or separate when impacted by a vehicle.

Bresle Patch Test:

A standardized method for determining the concentration of salt on steel bridge components.


Categorical Exclusion:

Type of environmental clearance document that may be applied for qualifying projects that use federal funding, typically under a programmatic agreement between government agencies, such as Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

A category of actions which do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment…and…for which, therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is required (40 CFR 1508.4).

CAPs (Communicating All Promises):

Project commitments to project participants and stakeholders stored and tracked in a project database.

Promises and commitments made by KYTC during the project development process, e.g. right of way negotiation process outside of compensation for the value of the property being obtained. The Project Manager documents CAPs and includes a report of these in the project letting proposal. In the hierarchy of construction contract documents, the CAP report is the second highest in this order, ranking behind questions and answers from the Division of Construction Website and before Special Notes.

Capital Improvement Projects:

Projects with larger budgets that usually involve new road or bridge construction or major improvements to higher-traffic routes.  They are included in the Highway Improvement Projects Listing in the current Highway Plan.


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Gives authority for federal direct response to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment.

CHAF (Continuous Highway Analysis Framework):

An application enabling users to collect, track and analyze identified transportation needs. CHAF also provides a means to sponsor, score and rank projects as part of the Strategic Highway Investment Formula for Tomorrow (SHIFT).


A breakdown of a coating due to UV exposure that transforms the coating surface into a powdery white film.

Clear Runout Area:

The area at the toe of a non-recoverable, traversable slope available for safe use by an errant vehicle.

Clear Space:

The minimum amount of unobstructed sidewalk or street crossing space needed to accommodate a wheelchair and its user. For example, at the bottom of perpendicular curb ramps, a clear space of at least 4-feet by 4-feet must be provided within the width of the pedestrian street crossing and entirely outside of the parallel vehicle travel lanes (2011 PROWAG R304.5.5).

Clear Zone:

The unobstructed, traversable area provided beyond the edge of the through traveled way for the recovery of errant vehicles. The clear zone includes shoulders, bike lanes, and auxiliary lanes, except those auxiliary lanes that function like through lanes. The clear zone extends beyond the paved surface.


As a verb: A multi-step composite product application used to cover steel bridge components.
As a noun: A protective film (organic or inorganic) applied over a substrate to serve as a protective barrier.

Coating System:

A combination of two or more coatings applied as a base coat/primer along with successive intermediate and/or topcoats to provide a coherent protective film (organic or inorganic) applied over a substrate to serve as a protective coating. The coatings used to form to coating system each have different roles in terms of adhesion, defense of the structural concrete against the penetration by deleterious materials and protection of base coatings against UV coating degradation.

Combined Curb Ramp:

Any combination of two curb ramps that share a common landing (2011 PROWAG R304.1).


The individual parts of a pedestrian system feature (e.g., a perpendicular curb ramp includes the following components: landing, ramp, flares, detectable warning surface and counter slope). Also known as an element.

Concentrated Flow:

Deeper flow that has collected in pipes and channels.


Consent and Release:

An agreement between KYTC and property owner(s) that allows KYTC or contractors to enter onto property that is not owned or controlled by the KYTC in order to perform necessary work. All property owners (including tenants, if applicable) must sign the release form with others serving as witnesses to their signature to verify the signor understood what they were signing and voluntarily signed it. The Chief District Engineer approves these forms. A detailed description of the work is included along with the location.

Corridor Studies:

Evaluates proposed roadway segments, existing roadway improvements, and identifies and prioritizes projects for future funding.

Counter Slope:

The slope of a gutter, street, or other pedestrian-related surface that joins to the foot of a curb ramp run, blended transition, and/or turning space (2011 PROWAG R304.5.4).


Short for USACE, US Army Corps of Engineers.

Crash Tests:

Vehicular impact tests by which the structural and safety performance of roadside barriers and other highway appurtenances may be determined. Three evaluation criteria are considered, namely: (1) structural adequacy, (2) impact severity, and (3) vehicular post-impact trajectory.


A feature that has been proven acceptable for use under specified conditions either through crash testing or in-service performance.

Critical Path Method (CPM):

A method used to estimate the minimum project schedule duration.

Critical Path Method Diagram:
Identifies project tasks, their time for completion, and their dependence on other tasks.  The critical path is the longest sequence of activities that must be completed on time for the project to be complete.

Critical Slope :

A slope on which a vehicle is likely to overturn. Slopes steeper than 3:1 are generally considered critical.

Cross Slope:

The slope measured perpendicular to the direction of pedestrian travel. A steep cross slope increases the potential for wheelchairs, scooters, bicycles, and rolling walkers to tip over and significantly increases the physical effort required by users of these implements to maintain a direct route (2011 PROWAG R105.5)


Marked or unmarked path that is identified and which connects existing or planned pedestrian access routes. Intended for pedestrian to use when crossing vehicular travel lanes.

Curb Line:

A line at the face of the curb that marks the transition between the curb and the gutter, street, or highway (2011 PROWAG R105.5).

Curb Ramp:

A ramp that cuts through or is built up to the curb. Curb ramps can be perpendicular, parallel, or a combination of parallel and perpendicular curb ramps (2011 PROWAG R105.5).




US Department of the Army.


Disadvantaged Business Enterprises



Deeper flow that has collected in pipes and channels.


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KYTC District Environmental Coordinator

DNA (Data Needs Analysis) Study:

A brief, small-scale study that provides basic planning-level information for smaller projects that do not require lengthy, detailed planning studies.

Depressed Corner:

Gradually reduces the sidewalk elevation — through a nearly-undetectable change in slope — to meet the street’s grade. Depressed corners are often designed as an expanded diagonal curb ramp that extends around the entire corner at an intersection. A depressed corner is a type of blended transition because it has a running slope of less than 5 percent (2011 PROWAG R304.1).

Design-Build Project:

A designer and a contractor working together under a single contract to provide design and construction services.

Design Speed:

A speed selected to determine a roadway’s geometric design features. When selecting a design speed, designers need to account for factors such as project type, anticipated operating speed, topography, adjacent land use, functional classification, context classification, and modal mix.

Detectable Warning Surfaces:

Consist of small, truncated domes built into or applied to a walking surface that can be sensed by a cane or underfoot. On pedestrian access routes, detectable warning surfaces indicate the boundary between a pedestrian route and a vehicle route for pedestrians who have impaired vision (2011 PROWAG R305).

Diagonal Curb Ramp:

A single curb ramp built in the middle of a corner radius of a roadway intersection. This ramp alignment directs users toward the center of the intersection, rather than the crosswalk. It is the least desirable option in curb ramp design (2011 PROWAG R207.2).


The failure of the bond between a steel substrate and coating, or between adjacent layers of coating/paint.

Discharge of Fill Material:

Adding fill material to WOTUS (e.g., placing fill to construct (1) infrastructure or structure in a WOTUS, (2) causeways, (3) road fills, (4) structures or infrastructure requiring the use of rock, sand, dirt, or other material for construction).

Drainage Feature:

Roadside elements whose primary purpose is to provide adequate roadway drainage, including curbs, culverts, ditches, and drop inlets.

Dredged Material:

Any material that is excavated or dredged from WOTUS (e.g., sediment removed from the bottom of a stream).



An easement is an interest in land which permits the owner of the easement to use the land owned by another for a specific purpose or prohibits the owner of the land from doing something that would otherwise be lawful to do, (e.g. plant trees, build structures, etc.).  Easements can be public or private.  For these purposes an easement refers to a public easement.  An easement can be either temporary or permanent. A temporary easement grants the right to use the property for a particular purpose, typically construction, and is extinguished once use of the property for construction (or other purpose) is completed.  A permanent easement grants a perpetual legal right to use land owned by others for a specific use (e.g., drainage, utilities).


EA (Environmental Assessment):

Environmental assessment means a concise public document for which a Federal agency is responsible that serves to (40 CFR 1508.9):

  1. Briefly provide sufficient evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) or a finding of no significant impact (FONSI).
  2. Aid an agency’s compliance with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary.
  3. Facilitate preparation of a statement when one is necessary.


Equal Employment Opportunity

EIS (Environmental Impact Statement):

An EIS is a full disclosure document for major Federal actions that significantly affect the quality of the human environment.  They detail the process through which a transportation project was developed, include consideration of a range of reasonable alternatives, analyze the potential impacts resulting from the alternatives, and demonstrate compliance with other applicable environmental laws and executive orders. The EIS process is completed in the following ordered steps: Notice of Intent (NOI), draft EIS, final EIS, and record of decision (ROD).


A component of pedestrian facility (e.g., pedestrian curb ramp) (2011 PROWAG R105.5).

Enacted Highway Plan:

The plan provides the framework for advancing transportation projects during the upcoming two-year period (i.e., biennium) and lists recommended projects for the four-year period that follows the upcoming biennium. The plan contains a schedule for proposed projects as well as budgets for the planning, design, right-of-way, utility, and construction (PDRUC) phases.  It is approved by the General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor on even-numbered years.

End Treatment:

The designed modification of the end of roadside or median barriers, including anchorages, terminals, and crash cushions.


The State Highway Engineer of the Department, or a duly authorized representative responsible for engineering supervision of the Contract.

EO (Environmental Overview):

Preliminary assessment of possible environmental impacts that may result from the project and may require field evaluation, ranging from windshield survey to full environmental investigation, depending upon project complexity.

Ephemeral Stream:

A defined channel with flowing water only during and after rainfall events.




All or any portion of the pedestrian route located in the public ROW (2011 PROWAG R105.5).

Fascia Intermediate Coat:

The second paint application. It typically contains organic resin and pigments that form a barrier against salts. (Epoxy)

Fatal Flaw:

Project location or activity that must be avoided due to the negative impacts it would have on the project.

Finish Coat:

The final paint application. It contains organic resin material resistant to environmental conditions that are detrimental to steel materials (e.g., weathering). (Acrylic or Polyurethane)

Fill Material:

Any material used for the primary purpose of replacing an aquatic area with dry land or modifying the elevation of a water body (e.g., filling a wetland with sediment to build on top of it).



Grade Break:

The line where two surface planes with different grades meet (2011 PROWAG R105.5).


A longitudinal barrier system used to shield vehicles from hazards in the roadside area, to separate opposing traffic on divided highways with adequate medians, and occasionally to protect pedestrians from vehicle traffic.

Guardrail Post:

Wood or steel posts that hold the W-beam and maintain the height of the guardrail.

Gutter Flow Line (also, Curb Line):

A line at the face of the curb that marks the transition between the curb and the gutter, street, or highway (2011 PROWAG R105.5).




Individual Permit (KPDES):

Required for projects whose scope exceeds the criteria for the General Permit.

In-Lieu Fee:

It is a payment made to government agencies or nonprofits that administer an in-lieu fee program. These programs carry out activities that restore, create, enhance, or preserve habitat. As with mitigation banks, KYTC purchases credits from an in-lieu fee program sponsor (e.g., Kentucky Department of Fish & Wildlife) to offset unavoidable project impacts. What also differentiates in-lieu fee programs from mitigation banks is that an in-lieu fee program can sell a certain amount of Corps’ authorized credits in advance of undertaking any sort of restoration in the service area it covers. Once the in-lieu fee has been paid, the Cabinet is not liable for the performance of the site.

Interchange Justification Study (IJS):

Required for a project that proposes to provide a new interchange to an existing interstate facility.

Interchange Modification Report:

Required when a project proposes to revise/reconfigure an existing interchange on an interstate facility.

Intermediate Coat:

The second paint application. It typically contains organic resin and pigments that form a barrier against salts. (Epoxy)

Intermittent Streams:

A defined channel that either flows only part of the year or whose flow is spatially discontinuous (due to varying groundwater elevations).





Kentucky Division of Water, part of the Kentucky Energy and Environmental Cabinet.


Kentucky Erosion Prevention and Sediment Control. A training and qualification program for inspectors who oversee projects requiring NPDES permits.


Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. NPDES Stormwater permitting process administered through the KDOW in fulfillment of the CWA.


General Permit issued for common KYTC activities and project types through an agency level agreement between KYTC and KDOW titled, KPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activities.



An accumulation of fine particles on the surface of freshly placed concrete occurring when there is an upward movement of water through the concrete.

Landing (also, Turning Space):

A level walkway area of at least 4-feet by 4-feet at the top or bottom of a ramp which affords users of wheelchairs, scooters, bicycles and rolling walkers space to orient their direction before and after using a ramp (2011 PROWAG R304.2).

Lateral Offset:

The distance from the edge of the traveled way, shoulder, or other designated point to a vertical roadside element.

Length of Need (LON):

Total length of a longitudinal barrier needed to shield an area of concern. The LON point for a given system is usually confirmed by successfully passing a redirection crash test with impact at the LON point.

Longitudinal Barrier:

A barrier whose primary function is to prevent penetration and to safely redirect an errant vehicle away from a roadside or median obstacle.

Low-Volume Road:

A facility with the functional classification of local or minor collector road that has an average daily traffic volume of 2,000 vehicles per day or less.



AASHTO’s Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware. It presents uniform guidelines for crash testing highway safety features and recommends evaluation criteria to assess test results. MASH was first published in 2009 and revised in 2016.

Maintenance Projects:

Smaller scale projects that address the condition of existing highway assets, and do not involve the addition of new capacity or roadway functionality. They typically involve the restoration or repair of minor assets that contribute to the overall functionality of the roadway.  If they are included in the Highway Plan, they are in the Existing Highway System Performance Projects Listing.  Examples include re-striping of pavements, ditch cleaning, pothole patching, guardrail replacement, and minor bridge deck repairs.


A strip of concrete or grass that bisects a roadway and separates lanes of vehicular traffic traveling in opposite directions.

Mid-Block Crossing:

Pedestrian crossing not located at a road intersection.

Midwest Guardrail System (MGS):

A MASH compliant Test Level 3 guardrail. This W-beam guardrail configuration is 31 inches tall and mid-span splice.


The completion of a major phase of work.

Mitigation Bank:

Mitigation banks begin as degraded streams, wetlands, or other aquatic resource areas. Government agencies, private firms, nonprofits, or other stakeholders purchase these degraded lands with the goal of restoring or enhancing them. Restoration generates stream credits (typically measured in linear feet) or wetland credits (typically measured in acres). Mitigation banks have a defined service area (i.e., credits can only be purchased to mitigate project impacts that occur within the area) and establish a price for each credit. Banks are responsible for monitoring the performance of restored sites. KYTC purchases credits to offset unavoidable project impacts. Once credits have been purchased, the Cabinet is not liable for the performance of the banking site.

Mitigation Ratio:

This ratio captures how much restored or enhanced habitat is needed to replace lost functionality when a project impacts or eliminates streams or wetlands. Mitigation ratios vary based on the type and quality of habitat lost. For example, if the USACE specifies a 2:1 ratio for wetland habitat loss, KYTC would need to replace each acre of habitat lost with two acres of wetland that have been created through a mitigation bank or in-lieu fee program.

Monte Carlo Simulations:

Risk management technique used to conduct a quantitative analysis of risks using various simulations.

MPO (Metropolitan Planning Organization):

The policy board of an organization established to carry out the metropolitan transportation planning process for each urbanized area with a population of at least 50,000.

Mid-Block Crossing:


Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System. A conveyance or a system of conveyances that collects only stormwater for discharge it into a WOTUS. An MS4 is managed by a municipality and an NPDES Permittee.

Multimodal Facilities:

All modes of transportation are considered (automobiles, commuter trains, public transit, bicycles, and pedestrians.


National Highway System (NHS):

A system of roads designated by the US Department of Transportation in cooperation with the states, local officials, and metropolitan planning organizations that includes the Interstate Highway System as well as other roads important to the nation’s economy, defense, and mobility. Maps of the National Highway System in Kentucky can be found on the Division of Planning’s website.

Navigable Waters of the US:

Waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce. A determination of navigability, once made, applies laterally over the entire surface of the waterbody, and is not extinguished by later actions or events which impede or destroy navigable capacity.

NCHRP 350:

Published in 1993, the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) 350 provides uniform guidelines for conducting full-scale crash tests for permanent and temporary highway safety hardware. NCHRP Report 350 crash testing and evaluation criteria has been updated and the new publication is called MASH.


National Contingency Plan. Comprehensive system of accident reporting, spill containment, and cleanup for hazardous materials supported by multiple federal laws.

NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act):

NEPA is the over-arching environmental policy requiring the assessment of environmental effects prior to making decisions on infrastructure projects involving federal dollars or oversight. 


Strengthening W-beam or thrie beam rail elements by nesting two rails together.


Notice of Coverage. KDOW advises the permittee that the KPDES permit submittal has been received and is sufficient to grant the operator permission to begin project construction.


Notice of Intent. Permittee advises KDOW of commencement of project construction, in the form of the initial soil disturbance associated with the first construction activities (e.g., clearing, grubbing, excavation, haul road construction). The NOI filed through the KDOW website is referred to as an eNOI.

Non-Recoverable Slope:

A slope which is considered traversable but on which the errant vehicle will continue to the bottom. Embankment slopes between 3:1 and 4:1 may be considered traversable but non-recoverable if they are smooth and free of fixed objects.


Notice of Termination. Permittee advises the DOW that either the project is stabilized, permanently, or the permit holder is no longer under contract with property owner.

Notice of Intent:

A formal announcement of intent to prepare an EIS as defined in Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations (40 CFR 1508.22).


Notice of Violation. Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection issuance for noncompliance with permit requirements.


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System


Nonpoint Source. Pollution without a single, identifiable source (e.g., surface runoff from rain or snowmelt).


Nationwide Permit. Issued by the USACE under Section 404(e) of the CWA. The Nationwide Permit 14 addresses linear transportation project activities that have minimal individual and cumulative adverse effects on the environment and WOTUS.



A party responsible for executing activities that require a KPDES permit. The operator listed on the KYR10 permit may be the KYTC contractor for a roadway construction project. Also referred to as the facility operator.

Out Years:

Subsequent four-year period after the Biennial Construction Plan that helps to anticipate future funding needs and scheduling of project development and construction phases. Includes project funding not available for authorization.



Paired Ramps:

Two ramps on the same road or street corner. At least 5.5 feet must separate the ramps, as measured along the curb between the inside legs of each ramp.

Parallel Ramp:

Consists of two ramps which converge toward a centralized level landing. Oriented so the ramp’s path of travel is parallel to the vehicular path of travel on the adjacent street and the user’s path of travel on the sidewalk (2011 PROWAG  R304.3).

Patina (Weathering Steel):

In unpainted weathering steel (UWS) a patina is a dense, adherent coating that forms naturally on the steel surface when in contact with the atmosphere. It is a complex mixture of oxides that constantly erodes and is regenerated due to the alloy content of the steel. It acts as a barrier to hinder progressive corrosion and provides weathering steel with its aesthetic rust-like appearance.

Pedestrian Access Route:

A continuous and unobstructed accessible path of travel provided for pedestrians with disabilities within or coinciding with a pedestrian circulation path (2011 PROWAG R105.5).

Pedestrian Circulation Path:

A prepared exterior or interior surface provided for pedestrian travel in the public ROW. Includes independent walkways, shared-use paths, sidewalks, and other types of pedestrian facilities. All pedestrian circulation paths must contain a continuous pedestrian access route (2011 PROWAG R105.5)

Perennial Streams: 

Streams that flow throughout the year (in a typical year).

Perpendicular Ramp:

A curb ramp aligned so that the ramp is generally perpendicular to the centerline of the roadway. Users generally travel perpendicular to traffic when they enter the street at the base (2011 PROWAG R304.1)

Physical Constraints:

Conditions in the project ROW that may prevent alterations to pedestrian facilities from fully complying with ADA requirements for new construction. Examples of existing physical constraints include underlying terrain, ROW availability, underground structures, adjacent developed facilities, drainage, or the presence of a notable natural or historic feature (2011 PROWAG R202.3.1).

Point Source:

Any discernible, confined conveyance (e.g., pipe, ditch) from which runoff and pollutants could be discharged in a concentrated manner.


A contaminant. May be natural (sediment) or human made. The primary source of pollutants is sediment mobilized during storm events. Other sources of pollutants include oil/fuel/grease from servicing and operating construction equipment, concrete washout water, sanitary wastes and trash/debris.

Pressure Washing:

The use of externally powered pumps to force water through a constricted nozzle at high pressures resulting in a high velocity stream. When the nozzle is placed near a concrete substrate, the stream is capable of removing adherent soils and laitance thereby cleaning the concrete surface.

Primer Coat:

1. The initial paint application. It establishes an effective bond between the coating system and steel substrate. (Zinc) 2. The initial paint application. It establishes an effective bond between the coating system and steel substrate or existing coating systems. (Organic zinc or Epoxy/Moisture-Cure Urethanes)

Private Utilities:

Utilities that provides essential services for a profit, which would include common carriers as well as corporations that provide Electric, Gas, Communications, Sewer, and Water.


A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Source: Project Management Institute. (2017). A Guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide) (6th ed.).

Project Management:

he discipline of organizing and managing resources in such a way that these resources deliver all the work required to complete a project within defined scope, time and cost constraints. Source: Project Management Institute. (2017). A Guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide) (6th ed.).

Project Manager:

The individual with the authority and responsibility for delivering the documented project scope and quality requirements within predictable time and budget targets. Source: Project Management Institute. (2017). A Guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide) (6th ed.).

Project Risk:

An uncertain event or condition that could arise and change the outcome of a project, for better or for worse.  It may have a positive or negative effect on the objectives of the planned work (Project Management Institute, 2004).


KYTC’s current document management system. It is utilized to electronically manage, find, and share CADD files, geospatial content, project data, and office documents.


A group of related projects with a broader scope than individual projects; requires coordinated management. Source: Project Management Institute. (2017). A Guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide) (6th ed.).

Program Manager:

Manages a group of projects that focus on the overall vision of a program.  They may also manage projects within their program. Source: Project Management Institute. (2017). A Guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide) (6th ed.).

Proposal-Type Bid Package:

Contract documents available for qualified contractors to use when preparing their bid for the described work. It contains special provisions or requirements that vary from the Standard Specifications. Proposal information is incorporated into the contract documents upon contact award.


The 2011 Public Right-of-Way Accessibility Guidelines establish criteria for providing a feature within the public ROW that is physically accessible to pedestrians with disabilities. PROWAG makes allowances for typical roadway geometry and permits flexibility when existing facilities are altered. KYTC treats the 2011 PROWAG (and the 2013 supplement) as best practice.

Public Right of Way (ROW):

Public land or property, usually in interconnected corridors, acquired for or dedicated to transportation purposes (2011 PROWAG R105.5).

Public Utilities:

Utilities that are publicly owned and non-profit (i.e. Local Municipalities water and sewer)





Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Authorizes the EPA to handle hazardous waste at all points in its lifecycle.

Recoverable Slope:

A slope on which a motorist may, to a greater or lesser extent, retain or regain control of a vehicle. Slopes 4:1 and flatter are generally considered recoverable.

Red Flags:

Locations or activities of concern within the project area that entail additional study, coordination, design, right of way, utility relocation, or construction costs.

Reduced Post and Spacing:

Adding more posts to a guardrail installation as a strengthening technique to increase resistance to lateral loading.

Risk Management Register:

A list of the potential risks, critical information about each risk, and impact of the risk that could occur during the project execution phase.  It typically provides a description, the risk response, and the responsible party for mitigating and monitoring the risk.

Risk Matrix:

Documents project risks and allows for risk prioritization.  Risks are often prioritized in order of importance by focusing on those that would have the greatest impact on the project and a higher likelihood of occurring.


Area away from the roadway beyond the roadway’s outside shoulder edge. The median between roadways of a divided highway may also be considered roadside.

Roadway Departure:

A crash in which a vehicle crosses an edge line, centerline, or otherwise leaves the traveled way. Roadway departure crashes can result in some of the most severe outcomes due to their inherent danger.

ROD (Record of Decision):

A concise public document summarizing the findings in the EIS and the basis for the decision. The ROD must identify mitigations which were important in supporting decisions, such as those mitigations which reduce otherwise significant impacts, and ensure that appropriate monitoring procedures are implemented (32 CFR 651.26).

ROW (Right of Way):

Property owned by KYTC in fee simple or as an easement interest, within which a highway exists or is planned to be constructed. Examples of what this property can contain include, but are not limited to, the roadway, shoulders and curbing, sidewalks and shared use paths, drainage facilities, traffic control devices, rest areas and weight stations, fencing, and utilities.  Right of Way can also include abandoned roadway and/or their supporting structures.

Running Slope:

The grade measured along the direction of pedestrian travel (2011 PROWAG R105.5).



Safety Projects:

Projects included in the Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) that focus on reducing traffic fatalities and serious injuries on public roads.  They are funded programmatically through federal funds designated for the HSIP.


Section Engineer

Secondary Pedestrian Ramp:

When existing terrain has significant elevation change, a secondary pedestrian ramp may be built away from the street corner and used to help transition the sidewalk to the existing roadway curb height. This avoids having to build a curb ramp at the corner that chases the grade over a long distance.

Sheet Flow:

Manner of runoff and pollutant discharge whose point discharge lies beyond the limits of the area of disturbance.


Placing a barrier or crash cushion between the roadway and an obstacle or an area of concern to reduce the severity of impacts of errant vehicles.

SHIFT (Strategic Highway Investment Formula for Tomorrow):

KYTC’s data-driven, objective approach to compare capital improvement projects and prioritize limited transportation funds.

SHIFT helps reduce overprogramming and provides a clear road map for construction in the coming years. The formula applies to all transportation funding that isn’t prioritized by other means, such as maintenance work, local government projects and dedicated federal funds.

Significant Impacts:

According to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), the term “significant” requires consideration of both context and intensity, in relation to short- and long-term potential impacts from project actions. Project context includes impacts to the local area, the affected region, the stakeholders, and potentially, society. Project intensity relates to the severity of the project action, which could include both beneficial and adverse impacts.

Single-Client Mitigation Bank:

It is a mitigation bank whose credits are only available for used by a single organization or entity. The Cabinet has funded single-client mitigation banks to streamline the mitigation process.

Slope :

The relative steepness of terrain expressed as a ratio or percentage.

    • Fill slopes (i.e., foreslopes) are created when a roadway is constructed above the original ground level. Cut slopes (i.e., back slopes) are produced when the original ground is cut away to build a roadway. Slopes parallel to the flow of traffic may be categorized as positive (i.e., backslopes that extend upward from the roadway) or negative (i.e., foreslopes that extend downward from the roadway).


    • Transverse slopes are created by median crossovers, berms, driveways, or intersecting roadways. Although the exposure for transverse slopes is less than that for foreslopes or backslopes, they generally are more critical to errant motorists because run-off-the-road vehicles typically strike them head-on. Transverse slopes of 1V:6H or flatter are suggested for high-speed roadways.


Subject-Matter Expert


Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan. Petroleum product storage must be managed according to an approved SPCC Plan under EPA jurisdiction granted by the Oil Pollution Control Act.

Stakeholder Meetings:

On projects that are anticipated to be controversial, it is a good idea to assemble a group of people from the area and form a group of “Stakeholders” for the project. This could include property owners along the corridor, local officials (county judges, magistrates), and Local Planning and Zoning personnel, along with KYTC representatives. These are sometimes referred to as Citizens Advisory Groups or Committees. These groups can help with the effort by KYTC to be transparent in the project development process.

State Primary Road System:

Interstates, parkways, and other long-distance, high-traffic volume intrastate routes of statewide significance. State Primary Routes usually link major urban areas within the state or serve major interregional corridors.

State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP):

Federally required document that includes no less than four years of capital and non-capital surface transportation projects (or phases of projects) for federal funding with some exceptions. (23 CFR 450.218)

Each state shall develop a statewide transportation improvement program for all areas of the state. Such program shall cover a period of 4 years and be updated every 4 years or more frequently if the Governor elects to update more frequently. The STIP is to be developed for all areas of the state in cooperation with MPOs and local officials.


Includes stormwater runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and drainage.

Structurally Impracticable:

Refers to a condition where a facility or element of a facility (e.g., pedestrian curb ramp) cannot be constructed to fully comply with accessibility guidance because of circumstances when terrain features prevent full and strict compliance with accessibility guidance. Applies to new construction only (2010 ADAAG 35.151).

SUA (Small Urban Area) Studies:

Evaluates and provides recommendations for transportation networks in small urban areas.

Surface Preparation:

Actions taken by painters to prepare a substrate to receive coatings. These actions can include hammering/scabbing/chipping, washing, solvent cleaning, dry brushing or wiping, air-blasting, abrasive blasting, and hand- or power tool cleaning/abrading. 


Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan. A component of the KYR10 permit terms. It is a site-specific, written document that: (1) identifies potential sources of stormwater pollution at the construction site; (2) describes practices to reduce pollutants in stormwater discharges from the construction site; and (3) identifies procedures the operator will implement to comply with the terms and conditions of a construction general permit.




Describes an object that can be perceived using the sense of touch.

Target Value:

A specified measurement for the field installation of a built object. The target value factors into guidance requirements (including any set maximums or minimums) and a reasonable construction tolerance for the material and finished work. If the maximum or minimum target value is needed, the best practice is to design the built object to the target value to allow a reasonable construction tolerance.

Technically Infeasible:

Due to existing physical or site constraints the facility (e.g., sidewalk) cannot be built in a manner that conforms to minimum accessibility guidance (2010 ADAAG 106.5).

Test Level (TL):

Impact conditions for conducting vehicle crash tests. The specified test conditions include vehicle mass [weight], impact speed, approach angle, and point of impact on the safety feature. MASH has established six test levels (TLs) for longitudinal barriers in order to evaluate occupant risk, structural integrity of the barrier, and post-impact behavior of the vehicle for a variety of vehicle masses at varying speeds and angles of impact.

Through Traveled Way:

The portion of roadway for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of shoulders and auxiliary lanes.

Tooke Gage/Test:

A semi-destructive test device that creates a calibrated scratch through an existing (cured) coating system and then uses an eyepiece with a calibrated graticule to enable the operator to identify the various coatings present and their respective thicknesses.

Top Coat:

The final paint application. It contains organic resin material resistant to environmental conditions that are detrimental to steel materials (e.g., weathering). (Urethane)

Top Coating:

Application of coatings over a substrate, primer, or intermediate coating.

Tornado Diagram:

A type of bar chart with bars extending horizontally.  The data is displayed with the bars from longest to shortest, resembling a tornado.

Transportation Improvement Program (TIP):

A list of upcoming transportation projects in a Metropolitan Planning Organization area, covering a period of at least four years. Project information such as scope, anticipated schedule, and estimated cost is included.

Traversable Slope:

A slope from which a motorist may be able to slow and stop safely.

Traveled Way:

Portion of the roadway designated for the movement of vehicles (exclusive of shoulders).





Vertical Surface Discontinuities:

Vertical differences in level between two adjacent surfaces (2011 PROWAG R105.5).

Small Urban Area (SUA) studies – Evaluates and provides recommendations for transportation networks in small urban areas.



Woman Business Enterprise

W-Beam Steel Guardrail:

A roll-formed product that is shaped out of steel into the shape of a “W” cross section. The W-beam steel is typically galvanized to prevent corrosion and to increase the product’s lifecycle. W-beam guardrail comes in standard 25-foot (double panel), 12-foot-6-inch (full panel), or 6-foot-3-inch (half panel) sections.


Waters of the United States. Defined within United States 40 CFR 122.2 and under jurisdiction of both the US Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA. Definition periodically undergoes revision.


Swamp, marsh, bog, or similar area saturated by surface or groundwater and having characteristic aquatic vegetation.

Waters of the Commonwealth:

Defined in KRS 224.01-010(33) as any and all rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, ponds, impounding reservoirs, springs, wells, marshes, and all other bodies of surface or underground water, natural or artificial, situated wholly or partly within or bordering upon the Commonwealth of Kentucky or within its jurisdiction.


Water Quality Certifications. Issued by KDOW, they are required of a permittee seeking approval for activities that may impact a jurisdictional WOTUS.